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EditWatch this pagePetroleum industry in Iran

Iran manufactures 60–70% of its industrial equipment domestically, including various turbines, pumps, catalysts, refineries, oil tankers,drilling rigs, offshore platforms and exploration instruments.[1]

Oil production in Iran 1950-2012

Iran is an energy superpower and the Petroleum industry in Iran plays an important part in it.[2][3][4][5] In 2004 Iran produced 5.1 percent of the world’s total crude oil (3.9 million barrels (620,000 m3) per day), which generated revenues of US$25 billion to US$30 billion and was the country’s primary source of foreign currency.[6][7] At 2006 levels of production, oil proceeds represented about 18.7 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). However, the importance of the hydrocarbon sector to Iran’s economy has been far greater. The oil and gas industry has been the engine of economic growth, directly affecting public development projects, the government’s annual budget, and most foreign exchange sources.[6]

In FY 2009, the sector accounted for 60 percent of total government revenues and 80 percent of the total annual value of both exports and foreign currency earnings.[8] Oil and gas revenues are affected by the value of crude oil on the international market. It has been estimated that at the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) quota level (December 2004), a one-dollar change in the price of crude oil on the international market would alterIran’s oil revenues by US$1 billion.[6]

In 2012, Iran, which exports around 1.5 million barrels of crude oil a day, was the second-largest exporter among the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries.[9] In the same year, officials in Iran estimate that Iran's annual oil and gas revenues could reach $250 billion by 2015.[10] Iran plans to invest a total of $500 billion in the oil sector before 2025.[11][12]

Contents

HistoryThe era of international control, 1901–79The era of nationalized oil, 1979–presentOil production and reservesOil refining and consumptionTrade in oil and oil productsNatural gasMajor foreign projectsPetrochemicalsSee alsoReferencesExternal links

HistoryEdit

Main articles: Anglo-Iranian Oil Company and 1953 Iranian coup d'état

The era of international control, 1901–79Edit

Further information: National Iranian Oil Company § History and 1970s energy crisis

Prime Minister Mosaddegh with U.S. President Harry S. Truman

Abadan Refinery

The history of Iran’s oil industry began in 1901, when British speculator William D’Arcy received a concession from Iran to explore and develop southern Iran’s oil resources. The discovery of oil in 1908 led to the formation in 1909 of the London-based Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC). By purchasing a majority of the company’s shares in 1914, the British government gained direct control of the Iranian oil industry, which it would not relinquish for 37 years. After 1935 the APOC was called the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC). A 60-year agreement signed in 1933 established a flat payment to Iran of four British pounds for every ton of crude oil exported and denied Iran any right to control oil exports.[6]

In 1950 ongoing popular demand prompted a vote in the Majlis to nationalize the petroleum industry. A year later, the government of Prime MinisterMohammad Mossadeq formed the National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC). A 1953 coup d’état led by British and U.S. intelligence agencies ousted the Mossadeq government and paved the way for a new oil agreement.[13][14] In 1954 a new agreement divided profits equally between the NIOC and a multinational consortium that had replaced the AIOC. In 1973 Iran signed a new 20-year concession with the consortium.[6]

Beginning in the late 1950s, many of Iran’s international oil agreements did not produce the expected outcomes; even those oil companies that managed to extract oil in their designated areas contributed very little to the country’s total oil production. By the time of the Islamic Revolution of 1978–79, the five largest international companies that had agreements with the NIOC accounted for only 10.4 percent of total oil production.[clarification needed] During this period, Iran’s oil industry remained disconnected from other industries, particularly manufacturing. This separation promoted inefficiencies in the country’s overall industrial economy.[6]

In 1973, at a time when Iran was the second-largest oil exporter in the world and the Arab-Israeli War of October 6–25 was pressurizing the price of oil, theShah of Iran told the New York Times,[15] "Of course the world price of oil is going to rise....Certainly! And how...; You [Western nations] increased the price of wheat you sell us by 300%, and the same for sugar and cement...; You buy our crude oil and sell it back to us, refined as petrochemicals, at a hundred times the price you've paid to us...; It's only fair that, from now on, you should pay more for oil. Let's say ten times more."

The era of nationalized oil, 1979–presentEdit

See also: Economic history of Iran

Shazand Petrochemical complex.

Following the Revolution, the NIOC took control of Iran’s petroleum industry and canceled Iran’s international oil agreements. In 1980 the exploration, production, sale, and export of oil were delegated to the Ministry of Petroleum. Initially Iran’s post-revolutionary oil policy was based on foreign currency requirements and the long-term preservation of the natural resource. Following the Iran–Iraq War, however, this policy was replaced by a more aggressive approach: maximizing exports and accelerating economic growth. From 1979 until 1998, Iran did not sign any oil agreements with foreign oil companies. Early in the first administration of President Mohammad Khatami (in office 1997–2005), the government paid special attention to developing the country’s oil and gas industry. Oil was defined as inter-generational capital and an indispensable foundation of economic development. Thus, between 1997 and 2004 Iran invested more than US$40 billion in expanding the capacity of existing oil fields and discovering and exploring new fields and deposits. These projects were financed either in the form of joint investments with foreign companies or domestic contractors or through direct investment by the NIOC. In accordance with the law, foreign investment in oil discovery was possible only in the form of buyback agreements under which the NIOC was required to reimburse expenses and retain complete ownership of an oil field. Marketing of crude oil to potential buyers was managed by the NIOC and by a government enterprise called Nicoo. Nicoo marketed Iranian oil to Africa, and the NIOC marketed to Asia and Europe.[6] According to IHS CERA estimate, oil revenue of Iran will increase by a third to USD 100 billion in 2011 even though the country is under an extended period of U.S. sanctions.[16]

Oil production and reservesEdit

Main articles: National Iranian Oil Company and Oil reserves in Iran

Iran's oil & gas production (1970-2030 est.)

Iran's Petroleum production and consumption (1977-2010)

Total oil production reached a peak level of 6.6 Mbbl/d (1,050,000 m3/d) in 1976. By 1978, Iran had become the second-largest OPEC producer and exporter of crude oil and the fourth-largest producer in the world. After a lengthy decline in the 1980s, production of crude oil began to increase steadily in 1987. In 2008 Iran produced 3.9-million-barrels (620,000 m3) per day (bpd) and exported 2.4 Mbbl/d (380,000 m3/d).[17] Accounting for 5 percent of world production, it returned to its previous position as OPEC’s second-largest producer. According to estimates, in 2005 Iran had the capacity to produce 4.5 Mbbl/d (720,000 m3/d); it was believed that production capacity could increase to 5 Mbbl/d (790,000 m3/d) to 7 Mbbl/d (1,100,000 m3/d), but only with a substantial increase in foreign investment.[18] Iran’s long-term sustainable oil production rate is estimated at 3.8 Mbbl/d (600,000 m3/d).[6]According to the Iranian government, Iran has enough reserves to produce oil for the next 100 years while oil reserves of other Middle Eastern countries will be depleted in the next 60 years and most other oil-rich countries will lose their reserves within the next 30 years.[19]

In 2006 Iran reported crude oil reserves of 132.5 billion barrels (2.107×1010 m3), accounting for about 15 percent of OPEC’s proven reserves and 11.4 percent of world proven reserves. While the estimate of world crude oil reserves remained nearly steady between 2001 and 2006, at 1,154 billion barrels (1.835×1011 m3), the estimate of Iran’s oil reserves was revised upward by 32 percent when a new field was discovered near Bushehr. Market value of Iran's total oil reserves at international crude price of $75 per barrel stands at ~US $10 trillion.[20]

In the early 2000s, leading international oil firms from China, France, India, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Russia, Spain, and the United Kingdom had agreements to develop Iran’s oil and gas fields. In 2004 China signed a major agreement to buy oil and gas from Iran, as well as to develop Iran’s Yadavaran oil field. The value of this contract was estimated at US$150 billion to US$200 billion over 25 years.[6][21] In 2009, China National Petroleum Corp (CNPC) signed a deal with the National Iranian Oil Company whereby the former took ownership of a 70% stake upon promising to pay 90 percent of the development costs for the South Azadegan oil field, with the project needing investment of up to $2.5 billion. Earlier that year, CNPC also won a $2 billion deal to develop the first phase of the North Azadegan oilfield.[22]

A more modest yet important agreement was signed with India to explore and produce oil and natural gas in southern Iran. In 2006 the rate of production decline was 8 percent for Iran’s existing onshore oil fields (furnishing the majority of oil output) and 10 percent for existing offshore fields. Little exploration, upgrading, or establishment of new fields occurred in 2005–6.[6]However, the threat of American retaliation kept the investment way below the desired levels.[23] It only allowed Iran to continue to keep its oil export at or below its OPEC determined quota level.[24][25] Today, much of the equipment needed for oil industry are being produced by local manufacturers in Iran.[19]Besides, Iran is among the few countries that has reached the technology and "know-how" for drilling in the deep waters.[26]

Oil refining and consumptionEdit

Main articles: National Iranian Oil Refining and Distribution Company, Iranian targeted subsidy planand Fuel smuggling in Iran

Iran's refining capacity (2007-2013 est.)

In 2011 Iran’s refineries had a combined capacity of 1.457 Mbbl/d (231,600 m3/d). The largest refineries have the following capacities: Abadan, 350,000 bbl/d (56,000 m3/d); Esfahan, 284,000 bbl/d (45,200 m3/d); Bandar-e Abbas, 232,000 bbl/d (36,900 m3/d); Tehran, 220,000 bbl/d (35,000 m3/d); Arak, 170,000 bbl/d (27,000 m3/d); and Tabriz, 100,000 bbl/d (16,000 m3/d).[27] In 2004 pipelines conveyed 69 percent of total refined products; trucks, 20 percent; rail, 7 percent; and tankers, 4 percent. Oil refining produces a wide range of oil products, such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), gasoline,kerosene, fuel oil, and lubricants.[6] As of 2011 Iran is a net exporter of petroleum products thanks to large exports of residual fuel oil, but the refineries cannot meet domestic demand for lighter distillates such as gasoline.[27]

Between 1981 and 2010, domestic consumption of oil products increased from 0.6 Mbbl/d (95,000 m3/d) to 1.8 Mbbl/d (290,000 m3/d)[27]—an average annual growth rate of 3.7 percent. Between 1981 and 2004, consumption of gasoline grew by 6 percent annually, but domestic production met only 75 percent of demand for this product. In 2004 the country imported US$1.6 billion worth of gasoline. By 2006 it imported 41 percent of its gasoline, but by 2010 imports were down to 19.5% of gasoline consumption[27] and heavy investment in new refining capacity may see Iran exporting gasoline by 2015.[27] Refining capacity increased 18% in 2010 and the target is to increase refining capacity to 3.5 million barrels per day.[28]

Trade in oil and oil productsEdit

See also: Iranian Oil Bourse, National Iranian Tanker Company and Oil and gas revenues in Iran

In 2006 exports of crude oil totaled 2.5 Mbbl/d (400,000 m3/d), or about 62.5 percent of the country’s crude oil production. The direction of crude oil exports changed after the Revolution because of the U.S. trade embargo on Iran and the marketing strategy of the NIOC. Initially, Iran’s post-revolutionary crude oil export policy was based on foreign currency requirements and the need for long-term preservation of the natural resource. In addition, the government expanded oil trade with other developing countries. While the shares of Europe, Japan, and the United States declined from an average of 87 percent of oil exports before the Revolution to 52 percent in the early 2000s, the share of exports to East Asia (excluding Japan) increased significantly. In addition to crude oil exports, Iran exports oil products. In 2006 it exported 282,000 barrels (44,800 m3) of oil products, or about 21 percent of its total oil product output.[29]Iran plans to invest a total of $500 billion in the oil sector before 2025.[11][dead link][12]

In 2010, Iran, which exports around 2.6 million barrels of crude oil a day, was the second-largest exporter among the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries.[30] Several major emerging economies depend on Iranian oil: 10% of South Korea’s oil imports come from Iran, 9% of India’s and 6% of Chinese.[16]Moreover, Iranian oil makes up 7% of Japan’s and 30% of all Greek oil imports.[16] Iran is also a major oil supplier to Spain and Italy.[30] In the same year, officials in Iran estimate that Iran's annual oil and gas revenues could reach $250 billion by 2015 once the current projects come on stream.[10]

According to IHS CERA estimate, oil revenue of Iran will increase by a third toUSD 100 billion in 2011 even though the country is under an extended period ofU.S. sanctions.[16] As of January 2012, Iran exports 22% of its oil to China, 14% to Japan, 13% to India, 10% to South Korea, 7% to Italy, 7% to Turkey, 6% to Spain and the remainder to France, Greece (& other European countries), Taiwan, Sri Lanka, South Africa.[31]

Iran's projected oil and gas revenues by the International Monetary Fund.

Iran crude oil and condesate exports for key countries.

Iran export treemap (2010).

Iran's oil and natural gas pipelines.

Natural gasEdit

Main articles: National Iranian Gas Company and Natural gas reserves in Iran

Iran holds 10% of the world's provenoil reserves and 15% of its gas. It isOPEC's second largest exporter and the world's fourth largest oil producer.[32][33]

Projected Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline.

Iran natural gas production (red) and exports (black), 1960-2012

In addition to the natural gas associated with oil exploration and extraction, an estimated 62 percent of Iran’s 32.3 trillion cubic meters of proven natural gas reserves in 2006 were located in independent natural gas fields, an amount second only to those of Russia.[34] In 2006 annual production reached 105 billion cubic meters, with fastest growth occurring over the previous 15 years. In 2006 natural gas accounted for about 50 percent of domestic energy consumption, in part because domestic gas prices were heavily subsidized.





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Watch this pageIran

"Persia" redirects here. For other uses, see Persia (disambiguation).

This article is about the modern nation. For other uses, see Iran (disambiguation).

Islamic Republic of Iran

جمهوری اسلامی ایران
Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān (Persian)

FlagEmblemMotto: 
"استقلال، آزادی، جمهوری اسلامی"
"Esteqlāl, Āzādi, Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi"
"Independence, freedom, the Islamic Republic"
(de facto[1]Anthem: مهر خاوران
Mehr-e Xāvarān
"The Eastern Sun"

Capital
and largest cityTehran
35°41′N 51°25′EOfficial languagesPersianSpoken langu

Persian Azerbaijani Kurdish Lurish Semnani Gilaki Mazandarani Turkmen Arabic Baloch Talysh Georgian Armenian Neo-Aramaic

ReligionOfficial:
Shia Islam
Other recognized religions:

Sunni Islam Christianity Judaism Zoroastrianism

DemonymIranian
PersianGovernmentUnitary theocratic presidential republic - Supreme LeaderAli Khamenei - PresidentHassan Rouhani - Vice PresidentEshaq JahangiriLegislatureIslamic Consultative AssemblyUnification[3] - Median Empirec. 678 BC  - Achaemenid Empire550 BC  - Sassanid Empire[4]224 AD  - Safavid Empire1501[5]  - Islamic Republic1 April 1979  - Current constitution24 October 1979  - Constitution amendment28 July 1989 Area - Total1,648,195 km2 (18th)
636,372 sq mi - Water (%)0.7Population - 2013 estimate78,192,200 [6] (17th) - Density48/km2 (162rd)
124/sq miGDP (PPP)2014 estimate - Total$1.284 trillion[7] (18th) - Per capita$16,463[7] (72nd)GDP (nominal)2014 estimate - Total$402.700[7] (29th) - Per capita$5,165[7] (98th)Gini (2010)38[8]
mediumHDI (2013) 0.749[9]
high · 75thCurrencyRial (﷼) (IRR)Time zoneIRST (UTC+3:30) - Summer (DST)IRDT (UTC+4:30)Date formatyyyy/mm/dd (SH)Drives on therightCalling code+98ISO 3166 codeIRInternet TLD

.irایران.

Iran (i/ɪˈrɑːn/[10] or /aɪˈræn/;[11] Persian: ایران‎ [ʔiːˈɾɑn]), also known as Persia(/ˈpɜrʒə/ or /ˈpɜrʃə/),[12][13][14] officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a countryin Western Asia.[15][16][17] It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia andAzerbaijan; with Kazakhstan and Russia across the Caspian Sea; to the northeast by Turkmenistan; to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan; to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman; and to the west by Turkey andIraq. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), it is the second-largest nation in the Middle East and the 18th-largest in the world. With 78.4 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 17th most populous nation.[15][18] It is the only country that has both a Caspian Sea and an Indian Ocean coastline. Iran has long been of geostrategic importance because of its central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz.

Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations,[19][20] beginning with the formation of the Proto-Elamite and Elamite kingdom in 3200–2800 BC. TheIranian Medes unified the area into the first of many empires in 625 BC, after which it became the dominant cultural and political power in the region.[3] Iran reached the pinnacle of its power during the Achaemenid Empire founded byCyrus the Great in 550 BC, which at its greatest extent comprised major portions of the ancient world, stretching from parts of the Balkans (Thrace,Paeonia and Macedonia) in the west, to the Indus Valley in the east, making it the largest empire the world had yet seen.[21] The empire collapsed in 330 BC following the conquests of Alexander the Great. The Parthian Empire emerged from the ashes and was succeeded by the Sasanian dynasty (Neo-Persian empire) in 224 AD, under which Iran again became one of the leading powers in the world, along with the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than four centuries.[22][23]

Rashidun Muslims invaded Persia in 633 AD, and conquered it by 651 AD, largely replacing Manichaeism and Zoroastrianism.[24] Iran thereafter played a vital role in the subsequent Islamic Golden Age, producing many influential scientists, scholars, artists, and thinkers. The emergence in 1501 of the Safavid dynasty, which promoted Twelver Shia Islam as the official religion, marked one of the most important turning points in Iranian and Muslim history.[5][25][26]Starting in 1736 under Nader Shah, Iran reached its greatest territorial extent since the Sassanid Empire, briefly possessing what was arguably the most powerful empire in the world.[27] In the course of the 19th century, Iranirrevocably lost swaths of its territories in the Caucasus region which made part of the concept of Iran for three centuries,[28] to neighboring Imperial Russia.[29]The Persian Constitutional Revolution of 1906 established the nation's first parliament, which operated within a constitutional monarchy. Following a coup d'état instigated by the U.K. and the U.S. in 1953, Iran gradually became very close allies with the US and the rest of the West, remained secular, but grew increasingly autocratic.[30] Growing dissent against foreign influence and political repression culminated in the 1979 Revolution, which led to the establishment of an Islamic republic on 1 April 1979.[18][31]

Tehran is the capital and largest city, serving as the cultural, commercial, and industrial center of the nation. Iran is a major regional and middle power,[32][33]exerting considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy through its large reserves of fossil fuels, which include the largestnatural gas supply in the world and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves.[34][35]It hosts Asia's 4th-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.[36]

Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. Its uniquepolitical system, based on the 1979 constitution, combines elements of aparliamentary democracy with a theocracy governed by the country's clergy, wherein the Supreme Leader wields significant influence. A multicultural nationcomprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, most inhabitants are officially Shia, Iranian rial is the currency, and Persian is the official language.[37]

Contents

EtymologyHistoryEarly history in IranClassical EraMiddle Ages (652–1501)Dynasties (1501–1979)After the 1979 Revolution (1979–)GeographyClimateFaunaRegions, provinces and citiesGovernment and politicsLawForeign relationsMilitaryEconomyTourismEnergyEducation, science and technologyDemographicsLanguagesEthnic groupsReligionCultureArtArchitectureLiteraturePhilosophy





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